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Cut Color Clarity Carat Weight Certification Care Shape Color Diamonds History  

Meaning of the name- the word and Place of its Origin
Diamonds have been glorified throughout the chronicles of greatest human discovery. They reflect the magnificence of the life and man's passionate exposition of it. Diamonds embrace the majesty, beauty and numerous legends with its undeniable charisma. Every civilization that sprung up wanted to explore this stone and excavate the place of its origin.
The name Diamond is derived  from the Greeks word Adamas, meaning the unconquerable or invincible. The indomitable King of the Gems it is the oldest mineral and the hardest substance known to man. Synonym of glamour, diamonds are believed to be more than 3 billion years old. Their crystallization initiates some 200 kilometers under the earth’s crust. A natural crystalline substance it is a transparent form of carbon. Before its furnishing, to be the radiant stone that we see, diamond is mined from kimberlite and lamproite, which are the resourceful rocks containing diamonds. This beautiful nature’s masterpiece is defined in the bosom of the earth and redefined by man.
In mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in an isometric-hexoctahedral crystal lattice. Diamonds are specifically renowned for their superlative physical qualities they are the hardest known natural material. Its hardness and high dispersion of light make bestows the brilliance to be used in jewelry. Diamonds come in various colors from yellow, green, blue, brown to colorless. The black diamonds, also known as carbonado, falls under the category of gemstones, with its opaque black color. The diamonds are graded on the basis of the “four Cs”: Carat, Clarity, Color, and Cut.
Diamonds are also  useful for industrial applications; excellent abrasives they can be scratched only by other diamonds, borazon, ultrahard fullerite, rhenium diboride, or aggregated diamond nanorods, which also means they hold a polish extremely well and retain their lustre.

Diamond Mining

The discovery of this unique stone dates back to 4th century B.C.
Until the 20th century, very few diamond depositories were know to man, India being the hothouse of jewelry trade. The charisma of the stone seduced man to discover different means to unearth this precious stone. The 14 century saw the trade routes barging into Bruges and Paris and later to Antwerp.  The famous Portuguese navigator Vasco-de-Gama cleared the way for the direct trade route to India by discovering the sea route to the Orient about the Cape of Good Hope. Today approximately 130 million carats (26,000 kg) are mined annually, with a total value of nearly USD $9 billion, and about 100,000 kg (220,000 lb) are synthesized annually. Today diamonds are mined in about 25 countries, from Australia, Africa, India, Ghana, Zaire, Russia, USA Arkansas, California, Colorado, and North Carolina, and Brazil. Russia, Botswana, Australia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa,  have currently the most commercially viable diamond deposits. Africa being the richest diamond resource as approximately 49% of the world’s diamonds are procured from central and southern Africa. The major producing countries of Africa include the Congo Republic (Zaire), South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Ghana, Central African Republic, Guinea, Sierra, Leone, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Lesotho. Congo Republic is the second largest producer of diamonds by weight (20 million carats in 1995) after Australia, with 18% of world production. Botswana is the richest diamond producing area of the world. * All the statistics mention herein are based on the results derived from net dated 21st May 2008
Worlds Famous Diamond Mines
Here is a list of the world’s richest, largest and popular mines that produce most of the diamonds in the world. 
  1. Jwaneng Diamond mine in Botswana is the richest mine in the world. Its total diamond production peaks at approximately 15 million carats a year. The mine is known for its Blue Diamonds
  2. The Argyle Diamond Mine in Australia is the largest diamond producer in the world by volume. Its average annual production 35 million carats, but due to the low proportion of gem-quality diamonds, is not the leader by value. Popular for its pink diamonds, it produces around 90 to 95% of the world's pink diamonds.
  3. Mirny, in eastern Siberia is the largest (in size) diamond mine in the world.  It is 500m wide and 1200m deep, so deep that the surrounding air zone is closed for helicopters.  There appeared a few accidents that, sucked a couple of helicopters.
  4. The Orapa diamond mine, is the world's largest diamond mine by area covering  240 kilometers. Located Botswana, in 2003 the mine was reported to have produced 16.3 million carats of diamonds. Catoca Diamond Minein Angola is the fourth largest diamond mine in world.
  5. Diavik Diamond Mines Canada, Annual diamond production – peaks at approximately 10 million carats
* All the statistics mention herein are based on the results derived from net as appeared on 21st  May 2008
Diamonds in America
Diamonds in America are mostly mined from Arkansas, Colorado and Montana. Near Murfreesboro, Arkansas, surplus stones, totaling more than 100,000 averaging 0.25 carat each were procured between 1907 and 1933. In fact the oldest and most famous diamond mine in North America is the Crater of Diamonds just south of Murfreesboro, Arkansas. The US diamond resources enriched with the startling discovery of the microscopic diamonds in 2004. In North America, isolated discoveries of diamonds at the surface were reported during the first half of the 19th century in the U.S. Midwest. Canada is the home to one of the greatest diamond discoveries of all time. Canada’s $2.0 million diamond industry has moved to the third place, for producing world-class diamonds. Lac de Gras has the first diamond mine in Canada, with more new mines coming up in Ontario. If we understand the geographical landscape, we find that major part of the country is laid under the ancient bedrock. The diamond bearing Kimberlite is found in Wisconsin in the deposits brushed off from northern landscape.
History of Diamonds
The Indians and the Egyptians were wearing diamond jewelry, but the European royals brought the gem real fame. Diamonds popularity began to surface in the European regality in the 13th and 14th centuries. The early diamond trading capital was Venice where diamond cutting sprang up sometime after 1330. Diamonds symbolized bravery and majesty, the reason why the courageous royals donned them pride. The noblemen such as Cosimo the Elder, Florence, Henry II of France, and possibly the Dukes of Burgundy wore them before going on a  battlefield and also employed them as symbols in rings. The Monarch of France, Francois I and Henry VIII of England vied for the precious stones in the first half of 16th Century monarch. How can we forget the most famous Kohinoor? Once a Mogul pride it sits cascaded in Queen Elizabeth’s crown. The worlds biggest diamonds the Cullinan Diamond and the Great Star of Africa, too are a part of the Britain’s royal wardrobe. Today the diamond mania dominates the red carpet, favorite with all the celebrities and the fashion icons. A standard engagement ring stone for all the celebrities and their fan’s alike. Diamonds have become the ultimate style must have for every individual. The credentials of the diamonds not only glorify the constitution of diamond but also the skills of the artisans that design it. Scoring an important change in jewelry design that co-occurred with the Indian diamond production- precious stones acquired more importance than their settings. There was no enameling done and the use of metal was limited to use of framework. The classic designs privileged in the Renaissance era were eventually replaced by natural elements such as leaves and flowers, ribbons, geometric figures etc. The craze for of the table cut started with the brilliant cut and further enhanced the role of diamond in jewelry. The diamond cut and shape granted a new dimension and glory to the stone. Rose cut became the most sort after, as an amalgamation with the aging point and the table cut. In the 18th century, the diamond glory magnified quintuple and was abundantly used for designing jewelry. Diamond parures, (i.e. the matching set of jewelry) were highly in vogue, in France particularly worn by the royal and affluent class. The fitting collection of  these pieces included a brooch bandeau, a necklace, comb, tiara, diadem, a pair of bracelets, pins, rings, drop earrings or cluster stud earrings, and a belt clasp. The settings were also incorporated in the platinum- a better substitute to gold and silver.

Diamond Revolution  

Once a rare royalty, now diamonds are within the reach of any potential customer. It was the first breakthrough in the 1870s that rephrase the diamond glory with the discovery of the rich diamond depositaries in South Africa. In 1871 the world annual diamond production surpassed 1 million carats for the first time, people acquired them at exceeding rate. The second was when, French crown jewels, sold in 1887 were squandered by new affluent capitalists. It exhibited that the appreciation and buying capacity of the common people was increasing, especially in the United States. The online jewelry retail has further defined the diamond market. The jewelry and loose diamonds sold at online jewelry portals are less costly than the retail stores. The price reduction is achieved as the product does not have to pass through the middleman thus cutting the extra cost.  These sites also remove the botheration of going to the retail store to purchase an item. The product is delivered at home free of cost. Diamond Lore and Myth
The legend of the Diamonds goes back eons in history. The Hebrew bible has a mention of a white crystal on the Breastplate of the High Priest called "yahalom ", what we call a diamond. A Hellenic story refers to a Valley of Diamonds, the abode of deadly snakes. It narrates Alexander, the great to be the only person to reach there.
Since ancient times, diamonds are acknowledged as symbols of bravery and invincibility. The medieval knights wore an uncut diamond on their armor in a belief to become unconquerable. History also has a reference of a diamond that could reveal the guilt or innocence of a person. Some  believed wearing a diamond could guard from the devil. Diamonds have been associated with virtue, purity, strength, wealth, power, and love. Exchanging Diamond wedding rings marked a sacred and eternalunion of two souls. The sparkling crystals ensured fidelity strengthen and emotional bonding of the couple.
There is an interesting lore how diamonds have now acquired the images of the ultimate gift. It was fabled that the diamond magic works only when you receive it as a gift or find it, not through purchase. The diamond magic could amplify his recipient’s fortune, no doubt the diamond magic works wonder.
Substitutes for diamonds
Diamond look-a-likes are widely accepted to satisfy the fashion buds. Synthetic Diamonds and diamond stimulant called diamante are the popular non-diamond substances that are used to stimulate the diamond look. Here are some of the common imitations.
  • The most renowned diamond substitute to diamond is Moissanite. This substance was first discovered when a meteorite struck down the earth. It is costlier than Cubic Zirconia but considerably cheaper than real diamonds.
  • Rhinestone is a diamond stimulant made from rock crystal, glass or acrylic.
  • Cubic Zirconia or CZ is crystalline a form of zirconium dioxide is widely used as a diamond substitute. It is far very cheap and very radiant.
  • High-leaded glass is used as diamond replica too.